The Organized Chaos of My LIfe

teefury:

Disney Concept Art

(via simbaga)

abbyjean:

Charts from OKCupid, showing how straight women and men rate each other based on ages. For women, the men they find most attractive are roughly their own age. For men, the women they find most attractive are roughly the same age - 20 to 23 - regardless of the age of the man. (538)

neurosciencestuff:

The Universal ‘Anger Face’



The next time you get really mad, take a look in the mirror. See the lowered brow, the thinned lips and the flared nostrils? That’s what social scientists call the “anger face,” and it appears to be part of our basic biology as humans.
Now, researchers at UC Santa Barbara and at Griffith University in Australia have identified the functional advantages that caused the specific appearance of the anger face to evolve. Their findings appear in the current online edition of the journal Evolution and Human Behavior.
“The expression is cross-culturally universal, and even congenitally blind children make this same face without ever having seen one,” said lead author Aaron Sell, a lecturer at the School of Criminology at Griffith University in Australia. Sell was formerly a postdoctoral scholar at UCSB’s Center for Evolutionary Psychology.
The anger expression employs seven distinct muscle groups that contract in a highly stereotyped manner. The researchers sought to understand why evolution chose those particular muscle contractions to signal the emotional state of anger.
The current research is part of a larger set of studies that examine the evolutionary function of anger. “Our earlier research showed that anger evolved to motivate effective bargaining behavior during conflicts of interest,” said Sell.
The greater the harm an individual can inflict, noted Leda Cosmides, the more bargaining power he or she wields. Cosmides, professor of psychology at UCSB, is a co-author on the study along with John Tooby, UCSB professor of anthropology. Cosmides and Tooby are co-directors of the campus’s Center for Evolutionary Psychology.
“This general bargaining-through-menace principle applies to humans as well,” said Tooby. “In earlier work we were able to confirm the predictions that stronger men anger more easily, fight more often, feel entitled to more unequal treatment, resolve conflicts more in their own favor and are even more in favor of military solutions than are physically weak men.”
Starting from the hypothesis that anger is a bargaining emotion, the researchers reasoned that the first step is communicating to the other party that the anger-triggering event is not acceptable, and the conflict will not end until an implicit agreement is reached. This, they say, is why the emotion of anger has a facial expression associated with it. “But the anger face not only signals the onset of a conflict,” said Sell. “Any distinctive facial display could do that. We hypothesized that the anger face evolved its specific form because it delivers something more for the expresser: Each element is designed to help intimidate others by making the angry individual appear more capable of delivering harm if not appeased.”
For our ancestors, Cosmides noted, greater upper body strength led to a greater ability to inflict harm; so the hypothesis was that the anger face should make a person appear stronger.
Using computer-generated faces, the researchers demonstrated that each of the individual components of the anger face made those computer-generated people appear physically stronger. For example, the most common feature of the anger face is the lowered brow. Researchers took a computerized image of an average human face and then digitally morphed it in two ways: One photo showed a lowered brow, and the other a raised brow. “With just this one difference, neither face appeared ‘angry,’ ” said Sell. “But when these two faces were shown to subjects, they reported the lowered brow face as looking like it belonged to a physically stronger man.”
The experiment was repeated one-by-one with each of the other major components of the classic anger face — raised cheekbones (as in a snarl), lips thinned and pushed out, the mouth raised (as in defiance), the nose flared and the chin pushed out and up. As predicted, the presence by itself of any one of these muscle contractions led observers to judge that the person making the face was physically stronger.
“Our previous research showed that humans are exceptionally good at assessing fighting ability just by looking at someone’s face,” said Sell. “Since people who are judged to be stronger tend to get their way more often, other things being equal, the researchers concluded that the explanation for evolution of the form of the human anger face is surprisingly simple — it is a threat display.”
These threat displays — like those of other animals — consist of exaggerations of cues of fighting ability, Sell continued. “So a man will puff up his chest, stand tall and morph his face to make himself appear stronger.
“The function of the anger face is intimidation,” added Cosmides, “just like a frog will puff itself up or a baboon will display its canines.”
As Tooby explained, “This makes sense of why evolution selected this particular facial display to co-occur with the onset of anger. Anger is triggered by the refusal to accept the situation, and the face immediately organizes itself to advertise to the other party the costs of not making the situation more acceptable. What is most pleasing about these results is that no feature of the anger face appears to be arbitrary; they all deliver the same message.”
According to Sell, the researchers know this to be true because each of the seven components has the same effect. “In the final analysis, you can think of the anger face as a constellation of features, each of which makes you appear physically more formidable.”

neurosciencestuff:

The Universal ‘Anger Face’

The next time you get really mad, take a look in the mirror. See the lowered brow, the thinned lips and the flared nostrils? That’s what social scientists call the “anger face,” and it appears to be part of our basic biology as humans.

Now, researchers at UC Santa Barbara and at Griffith University in Australia have identified the functional advantages that caused the specific appearance of the anger face to evolve. Their findings appear in the current online edition of the journal Evolution and Human Behavior.

“The expression is cross-culturally universal, and even congenitally blind children make this same face without ever having seen one,” said lead author Aaron Sell, a lecturer at the School of Criminology at Griffith University in Australia. Sell was formerly a postdoctoral scholar at UCSB’s Center for Evolutionary Psychology.

The anger expression employs seven distinct muscle groups that contract in a highly stereotyped manner. The researchers sought to understand why evolution chose those particular muscle contractions to signal the emotional state of anger.

The current research is part of a larger set of studies that examine the evolutionary function of anger. “Our earlier research showed that anger evolved to motivate effective bargaining behavior during conflicts of interest,” said Sell.

The greater the harm an individual can inflict, noted Leda Cosmides, the more bargaining power he or she wields. Cosmides, professor of psychology at UCSB, is a co-author on the study along with John Tooby, UCSB professor of anthropology. Cosmides and Tooby are co-directors of the campus’s Center for Evolutionary Psychology.

“This general bargaining-through-menace principle applies to humans as well,” said Tooby. “In earlier work we were able to confirm the predictions that stronger men anger more easily, fight more often, feel entitled to more unequal treatment, resolve conflicts more in their own favor and are even more in favor of military solutions than are physically weak men.”

Starting from the hypothesis that anger is a bargaining emotion, the researchers reasoned that the first step is communicating to the other party that the anger-triggering event is not acceptable, and the conflict will not end until an implicit agreement is reached. This, they say, is why the emotion of anger has a facial expression associated with it. “But the anger face not only signals the onset of a conflict,” said Sell. “Any distinctive facial display could do that. We hypothesized that the anger face evolved its specific form because it delivers something more for the expresser: Each element is designed to help intimidate others by making the angry individual appear more capable of delivering harm if not appeased.”

For our ancestors, Cosmides noted, greater upper body strength led to a greater ability to inflict harm; so the hypothesis was that the anger face should make a person appear stronger.

Using computer-generated faces, the researchers demonstrated that each of the individual components of the anger face made those computer-generated people appear physically stronger. For example, the most common feature of the anger face is the lowered brow. Researchers took a computerized image of an average human face and then digitally morphed it in two ways: One photo showed a lowered brow, and the other a raised brow. “With just this one difference, neither face appeared ‘angry,’ ” said Sell. “But when these two faces were shown to subjects, they reported the lowered brow face as looking like it belonged to a physically stronger man.”

The experiment was repeated one-by-one with each of the other major components of the classic anger face — raised cheekbones (as in a snarl), lips thinned and pushed out, the mouth raised (as in defiance), the nose flared and the chin pushed out and up. As predicted, the presence by itself of any one of these muscle contractions led observers to judge that the person making the face was physically stronger.

“Our previous research showed that humans are exceptionally good at assessing fighting ability just by looking at someone’s face,” said Sell. “Since people who are judged to be stronger tend to get their way more often, other things being equal, the researchers concluded that the explanation for evolution of the form of the human anger face is surprisingly simple — it is a threat display.”

These threat displays — like those of other animals — consist of exaggerations of cues of fighting ability, Sell continued. “So a man will puff up his chest, stand tall and morph his face to make himself appear stronger.

“The function of the anger face is intimidation,” added Cosmides, “just like a frog will puff itself up or a baboon will display its canines.”

As Tooby explained, “This makes sense of why evolution selected this particular facial display to co-occur with the onset of anger. Anger is triggered by the refusal to accept the situation, and the face immediately organizes itself to advertise to the other party the costs of not making the situation more acceptable. What is most pleasing about these results is that no feature of the anger face appears to be arbitrary; they all deliver the same message.”

According to Sell, the researchers know this to be true because each of the seven components has the same effect. “In the final analysis, you can think of the anger face as a constellation of features, each of which makes you appear physically more formidable.”

2014 U.S. Open Second Round: Eugenie Bouchard def. Sorana Cristea 6-2, 6-7 (4), 6-4

Kill it in Round 3!

Random List of Life Goals

QUEEN ZELDA. bearer of;  w  i  s  d  o  m
|   c  o  u  r  a  g  e   / /   p  o  w  e  r   |

(via nyurt)

computersciencetumbld:

The Quicksort Algorithm

Quicksort is the fastest known comparison-based sorting algorithm (on average, and for a large number of elements), requiring O(n log(n)) steps. By convention, n is the number of elements to be compared and big O is a function of those elements. Quicksort is a recursive algorithm which first partitions an array according to several rules:

  1. Pick an element, called a pivot, from the array.
  2. Reorder the array so that all elements with values less than the pivot come before the pivot, while all elements with values greater than the pivot come after it (equal values can go either way). After this partitioning, the pivot is in its final position. This is called the partition operation.
  3. Recursively apply the above steps to the sub-array of elements with smaller values and separately to the sub-array of elements with greater values.

Quicksort was invented by Tony Hoare and has undergone extensive analysis and scrutiny, and is known to be about twice as fast as the next fastest sorting algorithm. In the worst case, however, quicksort is a slow algorithm (and for quicksort, “worst case” corresponds to already sorted). (Click this link for an example of the Quicksort Algorithm written in C)

Credit: Wolfram Alpha/Wikipedia

(via see-plus-plus)

Oz

There is a road of golden days,
leading toward some city there,
with bramble thorns along the way.

Joyful peace and happiness lay,
in wait past misty mountains there.
There is a road of golden days.

Such common tales do not portray
the dangers that we must beware,
with bramble thorns along the way.

No matter what the stories say,
together we shall persevere.
There is a road of golden days.

I will hold you until I grey,
protect you from the dark despair,
with bramble thorns along the way.

Together we’ll not walk astray.
Clasp tight my hand; we’ll journey there.
There is a road of golden days
with bramble thorns along the way.

oupacademic:

The deputy Prime Minister of Turkey, Bülent Arinç, faced global backlash this week as he stated that “[women] should not laugh in public.” In response, women everywhere have been posting pictures of themselves smiling and laughing online, with the hashtag #direnkahkaha (Turkish for ‘resist laughter’). The reaction has had international reach, with high-profile celebrities getting involved, including Emma Watson who posted a photograph of her laughing on Twitter.
As Charlie Chaplin once said, “A day without laughter is a day wasted,” and at OUP, we couldn’t agree more. From the science behind why we laugh to laughter among deaf signers, and from humorous quotations to how we can interpret our smiles, there are plenty of resources for you to explore and let yourself giggle along to. And if that doesn’t work, well, there are always plenty of cat gifs.
Gif via giphy.com

oupacademic:

The deputy Prime Minister of Turkey, Bülent Arinç, faced global backlash this week as he stated that “[women] should not laugh in public.” In response, women everywhere have been posting pictures of themselves smiling and laughing online, with the hashtag #direnkahkaha (Turkish for ‘resist laughter’). The reaction has had international reach, with high-profile celebrities getting involved, including Emma Watson who posted a photograph of her laughing on Twitter.

As Charlie Chaplin once said, “A day without laughter is a day wasted,” and at OUP, we couldn’t agree more. From the science behind why we laugh to laughter among deaf signers, and from humorous quotations to how we can interpret our smiles, there are plenty of resources for you to explore and let yourself giggle along to. And if that doesn’t work, well, there are always plenty of cat gifs.

Gif via giphy.com